Gender inequality is one of the most pressing challenges facing the world of work today.
Globally, women’s chances of participating in the labor market are substantially lower than those of men.
After that, once they are part of the labor force, they are also less likely than men to find a job.
In effect, their access to quality employment opportunities remains restricted, as expressed in Actualidad Laboral.
In general, for example, women are more likely to work more hours than men, if paid and unpaid work is considered.
In addition, when they have a paid job, on average, women work fewer hours in exchange for a salary or profit.
This could be, either because they choose to work part-time or because this is the only option available.
These gender inequalities persist despite the preference of the majority of women around the world to work in paid employment.
Sadly, it shows that the choice of women is limited by a number of factors.
Remarkable factors on gender inequality
Based on data from the 2016 ILO-Gallup survey, the report Social Perspectives and Employment in the World: Trends in Female Employment 2017 discovers several items to understand this subject a bit more.
It examined the extent to which personal preferences, socio-economic constraints, and conformity with roles attributed to each sex drive gender differences in the labor market.
The analysis covered 142 countries and territories, and found the following points:
Having a spouse or partner reduces the likelihood of women participating in the labor market in emerging, developed countries and in the Arab States and in North Africa.
In developing countries, however, the effect is reversed.
In that case, stable relationships/marriage have a positive effect on participation (3,3 percentage points).
This last result highlights the economic need to work in developing countries, regardless of the couple situation.
Women in situations of extreme poverty are more likely to participate, regardless of gender norms.
In developing countries, the probability of participating increases by 7,8 percent.
In the emerging ones of 6,4 percent.
The two regions with the highest inequality in participation rates, the Arab States and in North Africa, the probability increases even more: 12,9 percent.
Worldwide, the lack of affordable care services for children or family members negatively affects women’s participation.
In the Arab States and in North Africa it reduces the probability of participating by 6,2 percentage points.
In developing countries of 4,8 percentage points; and in developed countries of 4 percentage points.
The fact of having children, however, has a small negative effect but is not significant.
In fact, in developing countries, it has a small positive effect, of 0,7 percentage points.
Another factor is limited access to safe transport.
Is the main difficulty faced by women in developing countries, this is a factor that reduces the probability of participation by 15,5 percentage points.
Religions represent a complex value system that extends to gender roles too.
In developing countries, the likelihood of participation is considerably reduced by religion, an indirect indicator of compliance with the most limiting gender function.
In emerging and developed countries, the results are mixed: in some cases, the effect is positive, in others negative.
A comprehensive approach aimed at addressing the multiple challenges is necessary in order for women to realize and achieve their full economic autonomy and gender equality according to men.